Copyright Wiki Link

Copyright Information

Copyright Information
Copyright is the exclusive legal right given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film or record literary or artistic information. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive right to it, usually for a limited time. Generally, it is “the right to copy”, but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, which may perform the work, which may financially benefit from it, and other related rights. It is a form of intellectual property applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete.

What does Copyright afford the owner?
Copyright is an exclusive right and gives the owner, or creator if the rights are sold, the sole right to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to perform or display the copyrighted work publicly. In many countries it will also give the creator of the work special privileges to determine how the work is to be displayed.

Is Copyright protected?
Copyright protection is automatic. The act of creating the work also creates the copyright. There is no requirement to register for copyright, although in Canada and most other countries it is important to show (assert) that copyright is claimed in a particular work. This is easily enough done by clearly marking any original work with the symbol “c” followed by the date from which copyright is claimed and the owner of the copyright. Furthermore, the act contains private copying expectation that makes it legal to copy sound recording onto an “audio recording medium” for the personal use of the person making the copy. This is supporting by a levy on blank audio recording media, which is distributed to record labels and musicians.

What types of works are protected?
Copy in works are divided into seven categories:
Literary work (covers works in electronic and paper formats)
Dramatic work
Artistic work
Musical work
Sound Recording
Performer’s performance
Communication Signed

What is the Term of Copyright?
In Canada and most other countries copyright, in general, lasts until 50 years after the death of the creator. There are however, different rules for created works that are industrially applied, such as Patent and Design Drawings.

Who Owns Copyright?
As a general rule, the author/creator is the first owner or copyright in a work. Where permission to use is copyrighted material is required, it is only the author/creator who can permit usage of his/her works. They are the only party that can sell, license or give away copyright. They can also transfer copyright in their works in its entirely or in parts. Thus, ownership of copyright is like a chain, with the author/creator being the first owner, therefore, being the first link in the chain. Links are added each time they sell, licenses or gives away all or part of the copyright.

Using Copyright Protected materials for Education purposes.
Many Canadian educators have become concerned about the requirements of the new copyright act, and how copyrighted works can be used in the educational environments. Copyright “All of the materials published in the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology (PJST) are copyrighted either by the individual authors or the PJST through Akamai University. All rights reserved. Materials from the PJST web site may be used or reproduced within the definition of fair academic use, but the PJST site may not be re-published on any web site nor used in any commercial endeavor without the express written permission from the PJST, Akamai University, and/or the individual copyright holders.”

Education Exceptions in Copyright
Under certain conditions, educational institutions or persons acting under their authority can make limited copies for instruction and examinations. Instructors can copy a work onto a board, flip chart, or similar surface and project a work using an overhead projector or similar device. The projection must be on the school premises for educational purposes only. The section arguably covers digital projectors as well. Teachers can reproduce, translate or perform a work when it is not commercially available in an appropriate medium only for the purpose of an exam or test. Other educational exceptions to copyright are in translation and performance, broadcasting, playing sound recording and including using images.
These are some of the educational exceptions established by copyright laws. Remember, there are other ways in which it is possible to copy and or use copyright materials under the various licenses held by the Education Ministry and Universities.

Information links:


Margaret Stewart: How YouTube thinks about copyright

Online copyright information:FAQs
“FACT SHEET Copyright Board’s Private Copying 2003-2004 Decision”
Copyright Board of Canada. 2003-12-12. Archived from the original on 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, © 2004-2006. Akamai University, Hilo, HI, U.S.A. Information.
“Copyright Matters! Some Key Questions and Answers for Teachers”. This is produced by the council of Ministers of Education and is also available online at


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